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European Journal of Business &

Social Sciences

Available at https://ejbss.org/

ISSN: 2235-767X

Volume 07 Issue 04

April 2019

Available online: https://ejbss.org/ P a g e | 143

Effects of Parenting Styles and Academic Hardiness on Achievement

Motivation of Secondary School Adolescent students in Ethiopia

*Dr Mamta Sharma**Tesfaye Girma

*Associate Professor. Department of Psychology. Punjabi University, Patiala

**Ph. D. Research Scholar. Department of Psychology. Punjabi University, Patiala

Abstract

The prime purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parenting style and academic hardiness on

achievement motivation. The data on parenting styles, academic hardiness, and achievement motivation were

collected through self-report questionnaires from a sample of 1006(514 females & 492 males) secondary school

adolescent students selected via multi-stage cluster random sampling technique from eight secondary schools in

Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. It was hypothesized that i) adolescent students who had perceived

their parents’ parenting style as authoritative parents would have higher achievement motivation than their

counterparts who had perceived as authoritarian, permissive and neglectful, ii) adolescent students with high

academic hardiness would have higher achievement motivation compared to their counterparts with low

academic hardiness. The results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed that adolescent students who

had perceived their parents’ parenting style as authoritative and authoritarian parents would have higher

achievement motivation than their counterparts who had perceived as permissive and neglectful

(F=21.80**,p<0.01). Results also revealed that adolescent students with high academic hardiness would have

higher achievement motivation compared to their counterparts with low academic hardiness (F=

98.22**,p<0.01). The interaction effect stating that achievement motivation of adolescent students with

authoritative parenting style and high academic hardiness would be higher as compared to adolescent students

with authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles and with low academic hardiness also came out

to be significant (F= 6.86**,p<0.01)

Key Words: Parenting styles, academic hardiness, achievement motivation, adolescent students

1. Introduction

Home is a social institution that provides psychological, emotional and social supports for the children. If an

adequate support is provided to the children by parents within the home, it will lead to the creation of a tough

and well-adjusted personality which is capable enough to successfully face the odds of life (Mirzaei

&Kadivarzare, 2014). Conversely, if home is not adequate enough in supporting the children, it can lead to

several interpersonal conflicts, problems, difficulties and agonies. Similarly, Sternberg, (2009) argued that

parents as the first children’s socializing factors play an important role in satisfying the psychological needs of

children and facilitate the development of independence and autonomy in their children. In relation to

achievement motivation, Shaffer, (2005) noted that the family environment established by parents through their

parenting styles promotes or hinders the development of some specific behaviors such as achievement

motivation. On the other hand, some researchers associate achievement motivation with academic hardiness in

academic settings. For instance, Benishek and Lopez (2001) suggested that the two cognitively oriented

theories, such as Kobasa’s (1979) hardiness theory and Dweck’s (2000) theory of academic motivation might be

useful in understanding the relationship between academic hardiness and achievement motivation. Thus, the

current study intended to investigate the effect of parenting styles and academic hardiness on achievement

motivation of adolescent students in Ethiopian. This is because as to the best knowledge of the researcher, this

problem is not yet effectively addressed in Ethiopian socio-cultural contexts.

1.2. Theoretical Frameworks

Parenting Styles: The first and the most known theoretical tripartite model of parenting style was postulated by

Baumrind (1966, 1967 &1973). In her two-dimensional model of parenting style, she identified three main types

of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive). Later on Maccoby and Martin (1983) revised

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European Journal of Business &

Social Sciences

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ISSN: 2235-767X

Volume 07 Issue 04

April 2019

Available online: https://ejbss.org/ P a g e | 144

her categories by further separating neglectful parenting style from permissive parenting style and add one more

to Baumrind’s original classification. Generally, in their two-dimensional model, Maccoby and Martin (1983)

classified parenting styles in to four types such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful

parenting styles. Thus, Maccoby’s and Martin’s (1983) two-dimensional model of parenting styles frames the

current study.

Academic Hardiness: According to Maddi &Kobasa (2005) and Maddi (2006), hardiness refers to a collection

of interrelated personality qualities that distinguished healthy executives under stress from unhealthy ones. They

have characterized hardiness as the three interrelated attitudes of commitment, control and challenge, which

they call the 3 “Cs”. On the other hand, Benishek& Lopez, (2001) stated academic hardiness as the resilience of

students to academic failure in which hardy students display willingness to be engaged in challenging academic

work, commit to academic activities, and perceive control over their academic performance and outcomes.

Achievement Motivation: Several theories of achievement motivation such as Atkinson’s theory, Attribution

Theory, Expectancy-Value Theory and Self-determination theory have defined and conceptualized achievement

motivation in different ways. However, the most dominant theory of achievement motivation, which has been

extensively employed by different researchers to investigate the effects of contextual and intrapersonal factors

on an individual’s self-motivation, is self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Turner, et, al., 2009;

Hoang, 2007; Pintrich, 2004). According to Deci & Ryan (1991), Self-determination theory (SDT) postulates

that achievement motivation is a multidimensional in nature which encompasses three global types of subscales

such as intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation, indicating person’s behavior as either

intrinsically or extrinsically motivated or amotivated along the self-determination continuum. Thus, Self- determination theory (SDT) supports the current study.

1.3 Parenting Styles, Academic Hardiness and Achievement Motivation

A large body of literature considered that parents, especially through parental styles might critically affect the

social, emotional, intellectual developments of their children and adolescents (Shaffer, 2005; Eccles, Wigfield,

&Schiefele, 1998). With respect to practical evidences related to the links between parenting styles and

achievement motivation, empirical studies which have scrutinized the influences of various patterns of parenting

styles on achievement motivation documented that different types of parenting styles have different influences

on the children’s achievement motivation. Most empirical studies Rosen &D’Andrade, 1959; Rosen, 1962;

Wentzel, 1998; Dornbusch et al.,1987; Delgado-Gaitan, 1991; Steinberg et al.,1994;Hoang, 2007; Leung et

al.,1998; Boveja, 1998; Turner, Chandler &Heffer, 2009; Gonzalez, Doan Holbein, & Quilter, 2002and

Gonzalez, Greenwood & Hsu, 2001; Grolnick& Ryan, 1989; Leung and Kwan, 1998) have reported that

adolescents from authoritative parents have higher achievement motivation than from non-authoritative parents.

Even though, several aforementioned research findings indicate positive links between authoritative parenting

style and achievement motivation, but negative links between authoritarian parenting style and achievement

motivation, other studies come out with contradictory results. Perceived authoritarian parenting was found to be

positively and significantly related to students' achievement motivation which in turn contributed to their

academic successes (Elizabeth, 2002); Chao,2001); Chen, et.al.,1997).

Regarding the relationship between academic hardiness and achievement motivation, researchers come out with

positive results. According to Hedayati, &Khaeez (2015), one of the most important psychological features or

factors which seems to have inseparable relationship with achievement motivation is psychological hardiness

that has drawn researchers' attention in recent years. Generally, empirical studies that have been conducted

regarding the relationship between hardiness and achievement motivation under different settings come out with

similar findings confirming that there is a significant and positive association between these two psychological

constructs. For example, Taheri &Nasab(2013) ; Hedayati, &Khaeez (2015); Cole, Field & Harris, (2004);

Pintrich, (2004); Bansal &Pahwa (2015); Vashishtha& Joshi (2015); Mirzaei &Kadivarzare (2014) documented

strong positive relationship between academic hardiness and achievement motivation. Similarly, other studies

such as Sheard &Golby,( 2007); Bartone, et al, 1989; Britt, et al, (2001); Florian, et al., (1995); Hosseini

&Hedayati (2014); HosseinPour, et al, (2008); Kamtsios and Karagiannopoulou (2016) revealed that hardy

people show the tendency to believe that they can affect their own experiences and they are able to fight hard

and tough life situations with high achievement orientations.

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2. Hypothesis

1. Achievement Motivation of adolescent students with authoritative parenting style would be higher as

compared to adolescent students with non-authoritative (authoritarian, permissive and neglectful)

2. Achievement Motivation of adolescent students with high academic hardiness would be higher as

compare to adolescent students with low academic hardiness

3. Achievement Motivation of adolescent students with authoritative parenting style and high academic

hardiness would be higher as compared to adolescent students with authoritarian, permissive and

neglectful parenting styles and high academic hardiness.

4. Achievement Motivation of adolescent students with authoritative parenting style and low academic

hardiness would be higher as compared to adolescent students with authoritarian, permissive and

neglectful parenting styles and low academic hardiness

3. Methodology

3.1. Samples and Sampling Technique: In current study, a multi-stage cluster random sampling technique

was employed to select the participants from different regional state, zone and secondary schools. Finally, a

simple random sampling technique was employed to select students from eight secondary schools (grade ten)

found in Bale Zone, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopian. A total of 1006 secondary school adolescent students

(514 or 51.1% females and 492 or 49.9% males), with age ranging from 15-20 years (average =16.98 years and

SD = 1.21), were approached. Firstly, the participants were categorized into four parenting styles based on their

perception of their parents’ parenting styles identified by Parenting Styles (Lamborn et al. (1991) questionnaire.

Secondly, Academic Hardiness Scale (Benishek and Lopez, 2001) was administered to categorize them in two

levels (low and high hardiness). For achievement motivation, the identified participants were administered

achievement motivation Scale (Vallerand et al., 1992).

3.2 Methods of Data Analysis: In the light of stated hypothesis of the study, frequency counts, percentages,

mean and standard deviation were used for preliminary analyses of the data. For the main analyses, ANOVA

(Analysis of Variance), was employed to examine the effects parenting styles and academic hardiness on

achievement motivation.

4. Results and Discussion

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of parenting styles and academic hardiness

on adolescent students’ achievement motivation. In line with the stated hypothesis, first, based on perception of

their parents’ parenting styles, participants were categorized in to four parenting styles. Secondly, based on their

scores on academic hardiness scales, they were also categorized in two levels (low and high hardiness) on the

criteria of mean plus or minus standard deviation (mean± standard deviation)

Table 1: Summary of Categories of Participants by levels of Academic hardiness and Parenting Styles

Category Parenting styles

Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Neglectful

High (who scored > 61 on Academic

hardiness scale)

60 60 60 60

Low (who scored < 51 on Academic

hardiness scale)

60 60 60 60

Sub Total 120 120 120 120

Excluded (Average students who scored

between 51 and 61 on Academic

hardiness Scale

140 250 43 93

Over all 260 370 165 213