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Kerala is one among the most thickly populated region in the world and the population is increasing at a rate of 14% per decade. As a result of the measures to satisfy the needs of the huge population, the rivers of Kerala have been increasingly polluted by the industrial and domestic waste and by the pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture.The major water quality problem associated with rivers of Kerala is bacteriological pollution. Coliform count in most of the Kerala Rivers and ground water is far above the permissible limits whereas air in most cities is thick with Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). Kerala has the highest chemical/bacterial contaminated drinking water among 28 tested States in the country, according to the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, the State’s Economic Review for 2011-2012 has stated. The present study is aimed to find out the causes of water pollution and to identify the effects of water pollution in Trivandrum district.