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The second half of the 19th century has been identified as a period of Modern reformism on the one side and of Islamic revivalism on the other side. These two extremes represented the intellectual responses of Islam by the Muslim elites to the western dominance. The one represented by Sir Syed of Aligarh school who interpreted Islam within the paradigm of modernity[1]while criticizing the traditional ulama for their anti-modern attitude. 

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Ali, S. (2019). Shibli Nomani’s Educational Ideas: A Response to Modernity. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 7(4), 1835-1841. Retrieved from