Main Article Content
Today, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases among children and adolescents, and is considered a non-infectious epidemic of the 21st century. According to the International Diabetes Federation IDF (2017), and to the 8th edition of the IDF Atlas, the total number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus under the age of 20 increased to 1 million 106 thousand, 586 thousand of which are children (age <15 years) with a total child population in the world of 1.94 billion. For the period 2000-2016 the prevalence rate of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children from 0 to 14 years was an average of 12.7 per 100 thousand children. Diabetes mellitus remains a global medical and social health problem all over the world. The greatest danger of diabetes mellitus is associated with its vascular complications, in particular, diabetic nephropathy (DN), which develops in 30-40% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and occupies a leading position among the causes of End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) worldwide . ESRF due to diabetic nephropathy remains the main cause of death of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) it ranks second after cardiovascular disease.