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Tuareg ethnic rebels group emerged in February 2007 the Nigerien Movement for Justice and they attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Events have since evolved into a full fledging insurgency. Their claim for collective rights as indigenous people therefore arises from their marginalization as nomads, first under colonialism and then later by independent state, all of which are dominated by sedentary agricultural people living in the South of the country. Commitment to a nomadic pastoralist culture and identity; marginalization from the dominant political and economic system as a result of non-agricultural economic base and traditional cultural identity; and claim to specific territory including a close relations between culture and particular biodiversity ecological specificity. The aims of this essay are to interrogate how the political, economic and cultural marginalization of Tuareg in Northern Niger led to Insurgency.